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E171 Titanium dioxide: White in colour, Titanium dioxide is extracted from the naturally occurring mineral Ilmenite, (named after the Ilmen Mountains in Russia), an iron-black, heavy, metallic oxide mineral, composed of iron and titanium oxide. Thought not to be easily absorbed, although detectable amounts can be found in the blood, brain and glands with the highest concentrations being in the lymph nodes and lungs, it is excreted from the body with urine.Can be found in tablets and capsules, cottage and Mozzarella cheeses, horseradish cream and sauces, lemon curd, toothpaste, and white paint, also in sweets where it is often used to provide a barrier between different colours. Used to increase opacity in some sauces.Banned in Germany.No adverse effects are known.
E172 Irion-oxides / hydroxides : Naturally occurring pigments of iron, which can be yellow, red, orange, brown or black in colour. Manufactured by treating a solution of ferrous sulphate or chloride with an alkali and oxidising the precipitate in hot air. As the iron present in these oxides is in the ferric form it is not very actively available to body tissues. Can be found in cake and dessert mixes, meat paste, salmon and shrimp paste. Toxic at ‘high doses’, banned in Germany.